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  1. Like it. But for a more ordered variant the company uses a limited number block for wagons, but when one is scrapped the number is re-used for a new, maybe different, wagon for capital accounting purposes so as time goes on the sequence of numbers becomes more random. I think a few companies used a variant of this system
  2. please note that none of the systems in this video are "future". It is just their full integration in a single swarm that is new. Also if you get to the end (at 7.08) you will see that this is produced by a bona-fide academic expert in the field a professor of computer science at Berkeley.
  3. I think the Chinese (when you look at their policy of mass indoctrination camps applied to the Uighurs in the Tarim Basin) are just as likely to be concerned about a radical moslem state on their borders as the Russians, which is why they are currently carrying out joint military exercises with them in Central Asia. Their pragmatic state capitalism only extends so far. Afghanistan isn't on the New Silk Road, won't be a viable market for the forseeable future, but does have mineral resources. What are the chances they will be the next "Great Power" to have a go at ruling Afghanistan..
  4. Unfortunately not. https://religionnews.com/2018/05/14/some-christians-and-jews-hail-embassy-move-to-jerusalem-as-key-to-a-biblical-plan/
  5. thats the problem with this stuff isn't it. Sane people like us can't believe it. Here is a straight report from Time about the connection between the Evangelical right and the presidency. https://time.com/4766485/national-day-prayer-white-house-dinner/
  6. British Israelism is just benign eccentricity compared to the real reason the US Evangelical right wing support Israel. They believe that the "End Times" and preceding "Rapture" will be brought about by a final conflict which begins at Armageddon (which as we all know is Megiddo in Israel) and so supporting a clearly destabilising Middle East policy is just part of the game. They don't see Israel as a natural ally. They see it as the place where the end of the world happens. The following is from an article published in October 2020. According to surveys 42% of Americans believe that the 38th Chapter of the Book of Ezekial fortells that a “place in the far north” (interpreted, naturally, to be Russia) would team up with “many nations” (certainly including Iraq and Iran) to attack a “peaceful and unsuspecting” Israel. This would lead to a cosmic battle in which God would come to Israel’s defense, true Christians would be “raptured,” or spirited away to heaven, and the wicked of the Earth would be left to suffer the trials and tribulations of God’s wrath during a horrific seven-year period when the Antichrist would reign supreme and a totalitarian world government called the New World Order would be established. Finally, Jesus and his raptured church would return, vanquishing the Antichrist and ushering in a thousand-year golden age, at the end of which Satan would be permanently defeated and all Christians would live in glory in a newly created heaven and Earth. The polices pursued by the Trump administration were all part of this belierf system. For those not steeped in rapture theology, the decisions to move the United States embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, pull out of the Iran nuclear deal, and assassinate Iranian Maj. Gen Qasem Soleimani may have seemed risky at best, nihilistic at worst — potentially destabilizing acts with little geopolitical upside. Yet many fundamentalist evangelicals rejoiced.
  7. I hesitate to raise a query, given the fleet manager's erudition level, but I wonder if the timber bolsters are likely to still be dumb buffered at this date. This would certainly appear to be the case for the LNWR.
  8. Which enabled them to smash trains together with surprising regularity. Though not surprising since instead of signalling they mostly seemed to employ a system that just involved guessing that the train in front had probably moved, or got out of the way. And an image search for "American train wreck" produces a disturbing number of modern ones implying that even with radios in cabs they don't appear to have completely got the hang of things.
  9. The missing bit of the map is of course North America. The Russians (Bering, who named the Strait) first arrived in 1743, and rather short sightedly flogged the last of their holdings to the Yanks in 1867. These holdings included Alaska, also California (Fort Ross, Sonoma County) which they sold to a Mexican citizen in 1841, and Hawaii (Fort Elizabeth, Fort Alexander and Fort Barclay de Tolly) which was only briefly controlled from 1815 to 1817. A rich source for alternative history whatifism.
  10. Apart from the Greeks. About 493BCE Darius the Great exiled the entire population of the Greek city of Barca to Bactria (aka today Afghanistan) They rapidly became the dominant group locally, and became rulers. When Alexander invaded the area in 326BCE the presence of Greek culture made things much easier. After Alexander the region was ruled by the Seleucids, then as that empire collapsed became the Graeco-Bactrians, and eventually the Indo-Greeks whose kingdom finally fell to the Scythians in AD10. So Greek control in Afghanistan lasted from c493BCE until 10AD, a period of just over 500 years. Everyone since that time however...
  11. * - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_railway_companies_involved_in_the_1923_grouping ** - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Class_I_railroads I admit these lists do not seem to compare, but if you burrow down into the UK list you will find a lot of subsidiary companies, and a lot of independents, even at the grouping. On the other hand the US list includes a lot of duplicates where the same company is listed as a Railroad and then as a Railway, and quite a number that went out of business or were absorbed by other companies early on, so although there was a lot of local variety initially there were still only a handfull of major lines and groupings by WW2. That aside there are five times as many people in the US, so for comparabilty the US list would need to be divided by five. I get the feeling that as a proportion of the population there are less modellers in the US than the UK.
  12. Actually I'm using historic consist details and Union Sation Sides for my streamliners so I can be pretty confident of the accuracy. For the the havyweights and betterment cars I'm using the usual suspects (and converting where necessary). I know they have problems, but they are close enough. For my pre WW1 British stuff there are the same multiplicity of variations but I demand more accuracy. Why? because there appear to be far more suppliers of the varieties of stock for Britain than for the US. I find this strange. In principle there is a bigger market in the US than the UK, and for the pre groupinmg period in the UK there is just as wide a variety of companies and stock as for the pre WWII period in the US, but yet the range of models for the US is much more limited, and the specialist suppliers much more ephemeral.
  13. Aargh! A whole set of problems lies ahead of me now. I aim to build cars from the SF (Super Chief, El Capitan); NYC ( 20th Century Limited, James Whitcombe Riley); and PRR (Broadway Limited, Liberty Limited) from 1937-41 Cars are variously Pullman Standard, and Budd; plus PRR betterment, Pullman betterment and NYS betterment. I suspect that I have no chance of finding out which of these had tinted windows, and once they are in they won't be changeable.
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